Based on more than twenty years of research, Conforma Clad has developed three standard tungsten carbide cladding formulas (WC200, WC210, WC219) that provide superior wear protection for a wide range of operating conditions and wear modes (including abrasion, erosion, corrosion and impact, individually or in a combination). Our engineers evaluate each substrate and operating environment to determine the best cladding formula. In addition to the standard tungsten carbide cladding formulas, we also offer custom formulations to fit specific customer requirements.

Cladding Specifications

  • Standard cladding thickness ranges from 0.020 to 0.125 inches.
  • Most cladding is applied by hand.
  • In cases where there is not sufficient hand access, mechanical aids may be employeed. Inside diameters (ID’s) as small as 1/4" and 6” long have been clad with the aid of an application rod.
  • Chamfers and radii as small as 1/8” can be clad.
  • Sharp edges (where cladding is required on both sides) will be clad with two types of cloth. The side experiencing greater wear will be clad with the more wear resistant cladding. The other side will be clad with a more ductile material. This combination helps relieve excess stresses that can cause fracturing during the cool-down portion of the cycle. 

Standard Tungsten Carbide Cladding Formulas

Cladding Composition (Weight Percentage)

 

WC 200

WC 210

WC 219

Tungsten Carbide*

62%

55%

48%

Nickel

30%

34%

39%

Chromium

6%

7%

8%

Other

2%

4%

5%

 

Total carbide loading from other carbide formation

68%

66%

62%

 

*Tungsten Carbide (WC) includes cobalt bonded WC. 

Cladding Properties

                                             

WC 200

WC 210

WC 219

Density (lb/in3)

0.44

0.42

0.40

Thermal Conductivity (BTU in/h•ft2•°F)

230

200

170

Metallurgical Bond Strength (psi)

>70,000

>70,000

>70,000

Porosity

<3%

<3%

<3%

Rockwell Hardness (HRC)**

64-70

60-66

56-62

**Cladding is a composite of tungsten carbide particles dispersed in a nickel-based alloy matrix. The extremely hard carbide particles, with a Vickers Diamond Pyramid Hardness of about 2000 DPH50g [1865 DPH50g is equivalent to 80 Rockwell C Hardness (HRC)], are surrounded by a two-phase matrix (300-800 DPH50g, equivalent to 30-64 HRC). Because of the heterogeneous structure of the cladding, direct Rockwell hardness measurements are an average of the hard particles and matrix, and are not representative of the individual components of the composite. 

 

Characteristics of Finished Conforma Clad Surfaces
Percentage of tungsten  carbide                 48%-62%
Distribution Uniform distribution of large & small carbide particles throughout the composite
No interconnected porosity Since pores at such low levels are not interconnected, claddings are impermeable to high pressure gases and corrosive fluids
Rockwell C Hardness 64 to 70
Shear strength at bond lines 70,000 PSI
Transverse rupture strength 80,000-100,000 PSI

The result is a hard protective layer that is extremely wear resistant and very durable. Our cladding combines the hardness of tungsten carbide and the corrosion resistance of nickel chrome boron, resulting in protection that outperforms the competition. Bond strengths are estimated to be in excess of 70,000 PSI, making our material highly resistant to chipping, cracking and flaking.

Field applications verify that 1/16" of our brazed tungsten carbide cladding provides the same erosion protection as 3/4" of chrome carbide weld overlay or 3" of carbon steel.

We develop custom cloth formulations for industry specific applications, and even for individual customers. We clad customers’ components in certain situations, but also can fabricate and provide finished parts that meet customer specifications. 


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